Sierra Espuña
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All the towns that form part of the area of Espuña Mountain have maintained a similar human occupation throughout the time, from the oldest cultures to the present time.

The first vestiges of human presence are in Anton Cave, in the tail of Cierva dam, vestiges that go back to Paleolítico Age –about 40.000 years b.C.– In Espuña Mountain there are still some discoverings on numerous rocks of prehistoric rests, like that of approximately 20.000 years of antiquity, near Algarrobo Rambla.

In Mula, in "Hondo de Cajitán", ceramic rests appeared on the border of a small dried lake, of the type matrices and striker pins that demonstrate to be one of the places inhabited by the little regional population of Neolithic Age, by the 5.000 b.C.

Other important testimonies are dated in Eneolithic Period and correspond to the settlement of Cabezo Salaoso and Cerro del Castillo de Alhama, as well as the pictorial representations in walls of "covachas" in the mounts of Yéchar, "Cerro Cortado" and in "El Milano".

In Bronze Age, towns were located in fortified hills and some settlements in plain lands. The distribution of sites shows that the greatest agglomerations appear in the municipality of Totana, in which Bastida site is the most outstanding, communicating Guadalentin Valley with the coast.

El Cabezo de la Fuente del Murtal site is perfectly prepared to be visited, dated in the transition towards Iron Age, it is located in a hill respected by Algeciras prey, in the outskirts of Alhama.

Of Argaric culture, Mula is one of Murcian zones that possesses more sites, as "El Cabezo de Los Tesoros", in the side of Pedro Ponce Mountain, or "El Cabezo de La Plata", next to La Puebla de Mula. La Almoloya site emphasizes by its importance, a hill located in the term of Pliego. Nevertheless the most important site is that of La Bastida in Totana.

In Iberian world several towns of interesting ceramic representation are known. An example of Iberian culture is the famous Kalathos, a glass in form of top hat whose original is deposited in National Archaeological Museum, copy of which is exhibited in Museum of History of Alhama. In Totana, it emphasizes Las Cabezuelas settlement in that period. "El Cigarralejo" Iberian necrópolis archaeological collection of Iv-II centuries b.C. located in Mula is well-known at national level. More than 500 tombs have been exhumed that allow to know in a better way the funeral rites of the culture that gave name to our Peninsula.

During Roman stage an economic vivacity is lived. Fields and meadows fill of farming operations –villae– that produce cereals and fine oil of Hispania. Of all of them emphasize that of "Villaricos", in Mula, with a great oil press and spas, well and mosaics; and that of "Caputa", with another thermal water complex supplied by a dam. The centre of Romans´ life will be nevertheless the city of La Almagra, located next to Mula Baths.

In Hispano-Musulman time the fortified spaces are vital, constructed around the castles. They served in addition to its defensive function of military and political character, as permanent habitat and refuge of the near population. The fortifications of Aledo and the castle of Alhama are of singular importance. Other testimonies of Islamic period are the fortified town of Pliego known like "Castillo de las Paleras". Over the Castle of Las Paleras the true fortress was raised, with the mission of watching the strategic way between the average course of Segura River and the fields of Lorca.

Centuries XVII and XVIII suppose an anew and expansive stage in the region and left an excellent urban layout in the cities of Espuña: extensive streets, ample squares and splendid summer large houses.

Sierra Espuña